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Found 10 records similar to Bog Dynamics - Kouchibouguac
The Acadian forest in a natural state is one of the richest and more diverse temperate forests in the World, however it has been listed as one of six endangered forests in North America and is also the predominant ecosystem within Kouchibouguac National Park. A few key tree species of priority conservation concern have been identified as indicators of forests conditions: white pine (Pinus strobus), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and eastern white cedar (Thuya occidentalis). These softwood species merit particular attention due to their rarity relative to historic levels or recent notable declines at the population level. Red maple (Acer rubrum) has also been selected for special interest as a representative of hardwood species in mixed forests.
The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) has designed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to translate complex water quality data into an overall integrated score from 0-100. This score is based on the number of measured variables, which have observations exceeding water quality thresholds (i.e., scope); the number of these exceedances in the dataset (i.e., frequency); and the magnitude by which the observations exceed the guidelines (i.e., amplitude). These water quality parameters are crucial indicators of the physical, chemical or biological conditions in aquatic systems and processes. The purpose of the water quality monitoring program at Kouchibouguac National Park is to use this index to calculate a score and evaluate the status of our freshwater ecosystems.
At the establishment of Kouchibouguac National Park in 1969, remnants of past human history and intervention activities such as agriculture and wood harvesting since the mid-1880s have significantly influenced the Park’s current landscape. To this day, human-caused disturbance continues through visitor use, construction of trails, campgrounds and facilities, as well as maintenance work such as the mowing of roadsides. As expected, this long history of anthropogenic disturbances has greatly increased the prevalence of exotic vegetation species on the landscape. The invasion of natural ecosystems by these invasive plants is considered one of the biggest threats to the biodiversity and ecological integrity of these systems.
The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) is a small endangered shorebird listed under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). This species uses ocean shorelines as breeding grounds and nests in soft sandy areas with sparse vegetation above the high tide water line. These birds are indicators for the condition of coastal ecosystems due to their critical status; but also since this species is susceptible to human disturbance, habitat loss or alterations, predation, and sensitive to inclement weather related to sea level rise or climate change. The extensive barrier islands within Kouchibouguac National Park host a considerable percentage of the population along the Atlantic Coast therefore our role is crucial in the outcome of this species on a continental scale.
The Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network (CABIN) is a national aquatic biomonitoring program, established and maintained by Environment and Climate Change Canada, to provide a standardized protocol for the ecological assessment of freshwater ecosystems with the use of benthic macroinvertebrate communities as biological indicators for stream or river conditions. The purpose of the benthic invertebrates monitoring program at Kouchibouguac National Park is to assess the status of freshwater benthic invertebrate assemblages over time and detect trends in order to provide an early warning of deterioration through reductions in total taxa richness, EPT index (i.e., pollution-sensitive taxa richness), or an increase in the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) for organic pollution. All field and laboratory procedures follow standard CABIN protocols. A total of 13 sites are monitored; 6 located within KNP boundaries and are sampled annually (PRT01, FNT01, PLY01, BLK01, RNK01, MKL01); while 7 sites are located outside KNP but within the zone of influence and cooperation; 3 of which are also sampled annually (KCC03, KCS03, RTB01-02) while the remaining 4 are sampled in alternate years (KCC01, KCC02, KCS01, KCS02).
Red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) are colonial birds found on Tern Islands, a set of three small barrier islands separated by water at high tide located within Kouchibouguac National Park. These piscivorous sea ducks are indicators for the state of the breeding islands and associated marine or estuarine ecosystems, since nest distribution and productivity is closely related to habitat conditions such as the presence of marram grass (Ammophila breviligulata) in addition to sometimes sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) or common yarrow (Achillea millefolium); while the occurrence of the species is also linked to the scope and abundance of fish resources. The purpose of the red-breasted merganser monitoring program is to determine the annual number of nesting attempts and to measure nest success, as these are important parameters that contribute to breeding population dynamics. The methods for this measure involve an annual census in mid-August where nests (i.e., a bowl with at least one egg) are located by systematically searching the vegetated regions on Tern Islands immediately following the completion of the breeding season.
Plethodontid salamanders are ‘early warning’ indicators of biodiversity and forest conditions due to the high densities of populations in addition to the keystone role of this species in ecosystem processes as well as in food web dynamics. The purpose of the salamanders monitoring program at Kouchibouguac National Park is to count the number of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) at several sites in order to detect changes over time as an indication of population status. The methods for this measure involve the monitoring of 28 sites established around the perimeter of permanent sampling plots (PSPs) within four dominant forest stands (i.e., white pine, eastern hemlock, red maple, eastern white cedar). At each site, 40 simple non-layered artificial cover objects (ACOs) are checked annually in the fall from mid-September to mid-November, atleast four times and two weeks apart to minimize disturbance.
Songbirds are indicators of habitat conditions within forest or bog ecosystems, as these species have a high level of specialisation to various ecological niches and are extremely sensitive to natural processes. In consequence, these communities can demonstrate a rapid response to a broad range of environmental or successional changes at several spatial scales. The purpose of the forest songbirds monitoring program at Kouchibouguac National Park is to detect changes in the occurrence of 20 selected avian indicator species over time within specific habitat types: closed-canopy coniferous forest, open-canopy coniferous forest, deciduous forest, closed-canopy mixedwood forest, open-canopy mixedwood forest, late-seral bog, and open bog. The methods for this measure involve the monitoring on a 5-year cycle of 119 point-count stations in summer from mid-May to early August at the early morning hours to correspond with an increase in bird activity.
Dynamic Habitat Index. (2000-2005) Satellite derived estimates of photosynthetically active radiation can be obtained from satellites such as MODIS. Knowledge of the land cover allows for calculation the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is absorbed by vegetation. This fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by vegetation describes rate at which carbon dioxide and energy from sunlight are assimilated into carbohydrates during photosynthesis of plant tissues.
The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is a valuable multi-metric approach to assess the integrity of fish assemblages in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of the estuarine IBI monitoring program at Kouchibouguac National Park is to use this index in order to evaluate the condition of selected rivers and estuaries within coastal ecosystems. The methods for this biennial measure involve beach seining in shallow nearshore waters at 20 stations, once a month from May to October. This monthly sampling is required so as to maximize detection of the various species in fish communities and account for variable phenology due to their reproductive cycles.