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Found 10 records similar to Service Industries - Specialization in Education Services, 1996
Health and education services now dominate the public sector, and have become important components of the local economy and social well-being. The map shows the difference between the actual employment in health services and the expected level, based on the city's population.
Health and education services now dominate the public sector, and have become important components of the local economy and social well-being. The map shows the difference between the actual employment in education and health activities and the expected level, based on the city's population. For the most part, these services are funded by provincial agencies, although local agencies may make location decisions. Education and health facilities are not closely related to income levels, so the expected levels of employment depend mainly on the population size.
Housing is one of the basic needs for well-being. Poor quality of housing may have adverse effects on health and well-being. Housing is one of the basic needs of all individuals, and the standard of housing impacts on physical health and well-being. Housing requiring major repairs inversely affects housing quality, while a high number of people per room inversely affects liveability.
The public service sector is defined here as the sum of public-service employment for all three levels of government, as well as education and health-care activities. The map of growth rates for public-service employment between 1986 and 1996 is almost entirely driven by education and health employment, and largely reflects the population growth rate. The combination of all these different activities produces a spatial distribution skewed towards the larger cities that serve as national or provincial/territorial capitals, and/or major education and health centres. During this period, cities in British Columbia grew rapidly, as did the clusters of cities around Toronto and Montréal.
Access to services affects well-being, social participation, education, health and employment. Accessibility is important to quality of life, as it creates the potential to take advantage of opportunities for upward social mobility, and to access health services, goods and services within the community.
Leisure and recreational activities affect overall well-being and can have a direct bearing on health. Opportunity for and access to leisure and recreational activities directly influences quality of life, since they are necessary for individual health and well-being.
Fifteen small and peripheral cities lost jobs between 1986 and 1996 in the education sector, but none more than 300. Toronto added almost 25 000 jobs in education during this period. Areas of slow growth, mostly rural or smaller centres, lost jobs in education as the birth rate declined, especially rural Quebec and across the northern periphery of the country. Nationally, the growth in the education sector more or less reflected the overall distribution of population growth across the country in, for example, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Toronto, Ottawa and Montréal.
Business services, the most rapidly growing sector within commercial services, includes accountants, computer services and other kinds of consultants — all those activities that serve other businesses. This map shows the difference between the actual employment in business services and the expected level, based on the city's population and income. Like financial services, business services are strongly oriented to big cities and to high-income locations, and within cities they concentrate in downtown office buildings and financial districts.
While the size of the market determines the amount of service activity within a city, it may have more service activity than indicated by the size of the market, and this surplus of facilities is called "centrality". A high index value of centrality implies that the city is serving an extensive region outside the city, as well as the urban market itself. Conversely, a deficiency of service facilities suggests that the city's external role is quite limited, or that it may even import goods and service from nearby centres. In general the agricultural centres of western Canada have the highest values of centrality, while the lower values are found in industrial cities of central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) or isolated resource towns.
This map shows the difference between the actual employment in leisure services and the expected level, based on the city's population and income. Leisure services are a complex group. They are a combination of food services, typically found close to markets, with no strong preference for city size or income; accommodation (hotels and motels), oriented to smaller centres and resort areas but especially in high-income areas; and recreation activities, found in both big-city and high-income locations. These activities are oriented to high-income consumers and are often found in high-amenity rural locations, as well as in many big cities.