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Found 10 records similar to TO2015 Pan and Parapan American Games Atmospheric Monitoring Observations
The Pan and Parapan American Games are a regional international summer sporting event, staged every 4 years in the year prior to the Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. The 2015 Games were awarded to Canada on November 6, 2009, by the Pan American Sports Organization. The XVII Pan American Games and the V Parapan American Games were held in Toronto, Canada, from July 10–26, 2015, and from August 7–15, 2015, respectively. Canada welcomed the 40 other countries/nations of the Americas to Toronto and the municipalities of the Greater Golden Horseshoe Area in Ontario where the summer sports events of the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games were hosted.
The high spatial and temporal resolution network was comprised of new automated land- and marine-based weather stations, and additional experimental monitoring platforms. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) designed the Mesonet to monitor weather at the venues, while providing close tracking of southern Ontario lake breezes, which can be associated with severe weather initiation and high air pollutant concentrations. To track the lake breeze, existing land and marine monitoring capacity was identified and expanded to define the Mesonet. The Games hosted a number of open-water events in the inner harbour and south of the Toronto Islands, an area where the competition or logistics could be affected by thunderstorms, severe weather or heat stress.
NAV CANADA (NC) provided Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) with automated minutely weather observations from six select AWOS stations (i.e. airport locations) in southern Ontario as an experimental, proof-of-concept program in support of the 2015 Games. The minutely data were at a higher temporal frequency than the hourly observations that are normally provided (sub-hourly weather specials, as required). The minutely data from these stations were considered raw and unofficial; observations can only be considered official after NC data processing and transmission to ECCC is in a specific format and fashion (as they are for hourly observations).
Mesoscale boundaries have an important influence on mesoscale weather. They can trigger, enhance or inhibit convections and severe weather. They are also indicators of shifts in wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity, and can affect air quality and heat indices. Around the Great Lakes, it has been observed that mesoscale boundaries are prevalent and can have complex interactions between each other.
Environment and Climate Change Canada added 40 compact stations, 10 ATMOS stations and 3 standard automated MSC Auto8 stations to the existing networks to form a high-resolution monitoring system across southern Ontario known as the Mesonet. These stations provided both high-density spacing and high-frequency minute-by-minute observations. Standard meteorological variables were reported—atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, temperature and precipitation amounts—as well as a new element recorded by a black globe thermometer, used in the evaluation of heat stress on the human body. The new automated surface weather stations were configured to report every minute, a sharp departure from the standard hourly reporting.
Three hybrid vehicles equipped with AMMOS units were deployed during the 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am Games as part of the high-resolution atmospheric monitoring network, the Mesonet, built by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) in support of the Games. AMMOS vehicles travelled prescribed routes (often simultaneously) between the Lake Ontario shore in Toronto and suburban/rural areas to the north and west. These three mobile stations collected data in locations where fixed stations cannot, such as along roadways surrounded by large buildings in downtown Toronto known as “urban canyons.”
The AMMOS units collected temperature and humidity (aspirated), pressure, wind speed and direction, GPS location and vehicle speed, insolation, and black globe temperature at one-second intervals. The AMMOS vehicles also carried fine particulate air quality sensors, and one AMMOS vehicle carried a prototype AirSENCE air quality sampling system.
Ten 10-m ATMOS surface weather stations were deployed during the 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am Games as the foundation of the high-resolution atmospheric monitoring network, the Mesonet, built by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) in support of the Games. The ATMOS stations collected 1.5-m temperature and humidity, pressure, 10-m wind speed and direction, insolation, black globe temperature, precipitation, and the difference in temperature between the top and bottom of the tower (local stability). Samples were made every 5 seconds and these were used to generate 1-min averages. Data then underwent thorough quality control.
Four ground-based radiometers (ultraviolet radiation instruments) were deployed in the Greater Golden Horseshoe Area in support of the Games. They reported minute-by-minute observations of the ultraviolet (UV) component of sun exposure as defined by the Global Solar UV Index (UVI). The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing UV radiation at a particular place and time. The readings from these sensors were used to inform the operational forecast program, particularly to provide data for validation of the UV index forecasts from the Environment and Climate Change Canada numerical modelling system.
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